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[Table] I'm Jeff Galak, Professor of Marketing & Social and Decision Science at Carnegie Mellon University. I have published dozens of academic papers on decision making, consumer behavior, and more. I have also recently launched a new YouTube channel called Data Demystified. AMA! (pt 1/3)

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Questions Answers
Hey Jeff! I'm a minimalist & find that I'm happier with less stuff & when I give/receive experiences rather than items. Do you find consumer happiness reflects this shift towards minimalism since that is a (small, but seemingly growing) trend, especially among Millennials? Great question! There is some relatively new research looking at happiness from experiences vs. material possessions. Most of it shows that happiness from equally valued (e.g. price) experiences is higher than for possessions. HOWEVER, and this is a big however, all that work tends to ignore long run happiness with highly prized possessions. For instance, if you have a sentimentally valued object, happiness that stems from that object lasts for a long time. What most possessions don't do is provide long lasting happiness. You buy a new shiny toy and it DOES make you happy...but that happiness goes away quickly. My collaborators and I have termed this idea "Hedonic Decline."
So as for minimalism, there is not evidence that I know of that shows that less possessions make you happier. There's plenty showing that more possessions don't make you happier, but that's not the same thing.
One more layer of complexity: there are two routes to happiness: hedonic and eudaimonic. The former is what we usually think of when we think of happiness: how much joy does XYZ bring me. The latter, however, is closer to self-actualization. It's the happiness the comes from a accomplishing something....even if there was pain involved in getting there. I wonder if minimalism can increase eudaimonic happiness.
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That's interesting. Thank you for responding. In the minimalism community, self-actualization is reflected in endeavors such as achieving certain goals (like, paying off debt) that usually involves some amount of self-discipline &/or self-sacrifice. I'd say that the vast majority of research in happiness excludes eudaimonic happiness, largely because it's so hard to measure. My personal, non-data supported, take is that eudaimonic happiness is far more important than hedonic happiness. The latter is fleeting, whereas the former can be life changing.
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Beautifully said. Thank you.
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How does depression affect eudaimonic happiness compared to hedonic happiness? Great question and I don't know the answer. Social Psychology typical studies what we very poorly term "normal" psychology, which excludes clinical conditions like depression. Sorry!
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What’s your take on “pay to play” - as in, some “hedonic” purchases at are required to signal you’re in the game, making progress on eudaimonic happiness. When you get older and into your career, I’d venture many people have already figured out that hedonic happiness doesn’t do squat long-term, but there’s a balance in terms of how much hedonic happiness to have to acquire for the ultimate long-term eudaimonic happiness. Example: in sales, which I’m in tech analytics sales, companies want to spend for solutions to business problems, but they also want to see, visually, that the person they’re paying is a good representative for them. High cost equals a person that can represent that taste. Nice. Tailored suits, a nice watch and latest tech gadgets. There’s a pay to play aspect that signals to the world who I am, and that in turn actually allows me to get what I want- student loans paid off and early retirement.. I don't think there's any conflict here. If you will find some form of life satisfaction by succeeding in your career, there's no harm in also purchasing items that help you reach that goal. Those items can, in and of themselves, make you happy...nothing wrong with that. More to the point, hedonic and eudaimonic happiness don't have to be in opposition. You can have both!
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I really like this response. While i can jive with basic premise of experiences over possessions...i’m find it used a lot by people who actually just want to shirk obligation. I run HHiring and there is a persistent trend of people not wanting to act like their job is important..just because it’s easier to justify bailing on work/shifts to go do things when you can say you’re doing it for the experience, not focusing on the money you make at a job. I’m trying to figure out the best way to respond to people who think i’m some big bad money grubbing boss for wanting people to do their jobs. Meanwhile, in my personal life...i feel like i’m getting a lot of push back socially from people who think i should only work where i can just make my own schedule and dip put for an “experience” whenever. At the end of the say, it feels like people will just wax philosophic reasons for demanding leisure with all the material perks of having jobs and working. Great point. This relates to intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation. The former is the desire to do something because it's inherently interesting/rewarding. The latter is doing something for compensation. This is more in the realm of organizational behavior, and you'll have to wait for my wife who is also a professor, but of organizational behavior and theory, to do an AMA for more on that :)
Hello, thanks for doing this. Are you familiar with "loot boxes" in video games? I feel like the topics of a lot of your papers would fit right into why consumers/businesses use loot boxes. How does a loot box mechanic differ from gambling and should it be treated the same? (Regulation, age restriction, etc) If they are the same, how do you feel about video games including a loot box mechanic? Sticking with gambling parallels, what are your thoughts on video game companies targeting "whales" given that gamers can be any age nowadays? I'm not a gamer myself (though I do love TTPRGs and run a D&D 5e campaign), but I'm pretty familiar with loot boxes. Mobile games and social media platforms in general have become very good at continuous reinforcement. It can be the allure of getting a new outfit in a loot box or just an upvote on Reddit...the point is that we are wired to love small rewards, even if those rewards are meaningless. Casinos have mastered this art and loot boxes are an capitalizing of the same basic psychological mechanisms: need for positive reinforcements. So are loot boxes the same as gambling? Probably not the SAME, but damn close. As for regulation, I am strongly in favor of making gambling of all forms only accessible to adults and even then providing access to counseling for those who suffer from gambling addiction.
I have a lot less sympathy towards wealthy adults who choose to gamble as a form of entertainment. The problem is that it's not always obvious who's a whale and who's just pretending to be one for the attention. The latter is highly susceptible to financial ruin and I'd want them protected just the same as they are with standard gambling.
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Do you find the researcher in you observing and asking questions about the players' decision making processes in your D&D campaign? My old DM minored in psychology, and I often felt like a rat in his experiments. I enjoyed it, though. It kind of added an extra facet to the game. More than my research, teaching has made a huge difference in being a DM. When I lecture, I am forced to be quick on my feet to understand student questions, reply accordingly, and make sure that I'm moving the lecture along. That is the same with DMing. I need to be able to understand the motives of my players, respond appropriately with NPCs, and keep the story going.
I'm sure that my knowledge of psychology helps, but I wouldn't think it influences the way I DM (or play) that much.
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Studying business Psychology in Switzerland and leading the yawning portal atm, seems like I need to start teaching :p Ha! Check out this thread: https://www.reddit.com/WaterdeepDragonHeist/comments/fcc89a/the_yawning_portal_a_drinking_song_and_boss_music/
I used that for my game and it was great.
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Could I join your 5e campaign? Ha! Sorry, no. It's just close friends and we're months into it. I'm running Waterdeep, if you're curious.
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I'm applying to Carnegie's MBA for what it's worth! If I'm accepted, may I join then? ;-) How about you get in and then we discuss!
Hi Jeff! What is your favorite heuristic or logical fallacy when it comes to decision making? Can you teach us about one that people might not know about? Easy: Diversification Bias. That's where I started my career 15 years ago. I didn't discover this bias, but have built on it. Anyway, it's the idea that people choose more variety than they should. For example, if you are going to pick some snacks for the next few days, you might pick: chips, pretzels and an apple. Those are fine, but really chips are your favorite and you picked the other two because you thought you'd get tired of chips every day. Well, turns out you'd be wrong. A day is enough to reset satiation/hedonic-decline in most cases, so you'd be better off always picking your favorite option! Doing otherwise means eating snacks that are less preferred.
A new one that my doctoral student, Julian Givi, and I recently published: The Future Is Now (FIN) Heuristic. It's the idea that people believe that future events will be like present events, even when evidence points to the contrary. An example: if it's sunny today, you're more likely to think it'll be sunny tomorrow, even if the forecast clearly predict rain. What happens is you treat information about the present as having evidentiary value for future events, even when that's just not true.
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I really like that you give your student credit. PhD students do all the hard work. Professors just bask in the glory :)
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I think diversification bias is how I ended up with 5 shades of blue nail polish that are virtually undistinguishable from each other! Interesting to consider. Ha! Just might be...
Tell me about your paper "Sentimental value and gift giving: Givers’ fears of getting it wrong prevents them from getting it right". From what I read of the abstract, it seems that gift-givers undervalue sentimental value, seeing it as riskier. Why is that, and how can we give better gifts? Sure, this is a paper with my former doctoral student, Julian Givi. Basically, people are risk averse in gift giving when they shouldn't be. If I know you like coffee and I have a choice to give you some nice coffee beans or a framed photo of the two of us (presumably since we're friends), I give the former b/c it's a sure bet. But as the recipient, overwhelmingly, people prefer the latter. So givers should take the risk and give the sentimentally valuable gift over one that is more a sure bet.
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Interesting. When giving presents, givers focus too much on the recipient's known wants, which gets in the way of giving a meaningful present. Thank you! I'll be sure to keep that in-mind next Christmas. That's exactly it.
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I sometimes hesitate at this. I don’t want to come off as the selfie culture of all about me in pictures! But relatives do love getting pics of the kids for gifts. Still, how often is this perceived as a form of narcissism by the gift receiver? Edit: pictures of my kids not just me! One trick we do: every Christmas holiday we print full size calendars with our kids pictures on them. That's our holiday gift to all the grandparents. They LOVE it.
We also send small photo books to the grandparents throughout the year of some of the best pictures we take.
We have yet to send too many, but that's specific to our family.
The best advice I always have for something like this is: just ask! People are often worried about asking gift recipients about their preferences, but our research shows that a) recipients don't care about being asked and b) you can give better gifts that way.
Hi Jeff ! I have a question regarding involvement in a purchase, is there an increasing trend to become highly involved in the purchase of even low value object ? I find myself doing this during the pandemic doing comparison searches for a bulb which costs 10 dollars. Is this an exception ? Or is there some underlying psychological reason isolated to me ? Absolutely. Two reasons this could be happening. 1) With more free time, the threshold for what merits deep research drops a lot. 2) Many people are facing financial hardships, and so making sure every dollar is well spent becomes really important.
Hi Jeff, Thank you for the great AMA. Where do you see the future of insights departments in consumer companies? Most companies looks like giving up on ethnographic and in person research and focus on data analytics. I speculate management is under great pressure and in the meantime aspire to Google, Amazon etc. What is your take of insights departments future in large companies? Thank you! Exploratory research like ethnographies, interviews, and focus groups is really useful for brainstorming. But they are a poor substitute for quantitative data. Now, that doesn't mean "big data"...just data that has larger samples and is better representative of populations. Surveys are still amazing. When we want to forecast an election, we don't use big data, we conduct a political poll. They work.
But yes, right now, AI and machine learning are the hot new ideas on the block and everyone wants in on them. There is plenty of amazing applications of AI/ML, but what they can't do is tell you "why". As in, why did someone choose this option over that one? Or why are people motivated by this goal or that goal? Those types of answers allow you to apply knowledge in completely novel contexts. AI/ML needs to be trained on a specific type of data for a specific type of task. It is AMAZING at that. But as soon as you introduce a new context or new set of experiences, it fails. That's where good old fashioned surveys and behavioral experiments come in.
If a program was built to help us make better decisions, do you think we would use it? Do you think we can listen to a program’s advice better than we do from experts? We already do. Weather forecasts tell us how to dress. Facebook tells us what to think. Tinder tells us who to date. Etc... etc...
A program that EXPLICITLY tells you what to do won't work too well. People like to feel like they have free will. They don't, though. We are greatly influenced by our environment (not just technology) whether we know it or not. As one example: I can guess your weight reasonably well just by knowing your zip code (please don't make me actually do this as I'm not in the business of public shaming!). If we had true free will and agency, that should be impossible. Instead, we are the products of our environment.
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60641 Chicago? I believe Illinois has 30-35% obesity (I'm doing this quickly and not looking at your zip specifically), so pretty high weight.
Hi Jeff! Since I'm a 14 yrs old and knew nothing about what you study, I have very limited questions I can ask. But as I have observed, people are often sheepish and will consume as the trend goes. What is the most unexpected trend, worldwide? P.S. will defo check out your channel I don't expect most people to know my work (I like to think my ego isn't THAT big!), so no worries!
You're right. Trends will drive a lot of human behavior. We are social creatures and follow what others do much more than we care to admit. As for the most unexpected trend, that's really hard to say. Maybe this is too broad, but I'm surprised by how short people's attention span is when it comes to current events. News cycles used to last for weeks, now they last for hours. I suppose I know that people don't have long attention spans, but I'm still surprised.
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Any underlying reasoning for this? For the short attention spans? We can invoke evolutionary psychology, which I'm not a big fan of, and it would suggest something like a tensions between exploring and cultivating. So it would argue that our ancestors needed to have some reason to leave their immediate tribe to find new resources. So perhaps our attention spans are short b/c of this and the current environment exaggerates that behavior.
Have you done(or can you point to) any research relating to the decision making/not making around getting rid of possessions? I have a relative who keeps anything that has a perceived value as in could be sold on ebay/garage sale which they never sell. They are otherwise rational, clean, don't over consume..def not hoarder territory.. but I struggle to convince them that the old digital camera that's been sitting for 3 years could just be disposed of. Hoarding is definitely a thing. There isn't much in the study of item disposition in the empirical world of research (lots of interesting qualitative work that I'm less familiar with). The big exception to this is the Endowment Effect. The short version is that you value items you own more than if you don't own it. So a mug sitting on a store shelf is worth, say $10 to you, but as soon as you own it is worth, say, $20 to you. Nothing changed except your ownership of it. That explains some of hoarding behavior, but not all of it.
For a qualitative research paper on the topic, see here: https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mcb/216/2010/00000013/00000001/art00001
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I suppose I have the Endowment Effect. Everytime I find something valuable i dont have the will to let it go. Even though i can sell it and re buy it later, or buy something similar haha. It's like I want to take the most of it and use it til it brakes, go missing, or whatever. The endowment effect isn't infinite. As in, it's not that you won't be willing to sell your items for ANY price, it's just that your willingness to sell is higher than your willingness to buy.
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Hey Professor, appreciate the AMA. A couple of questions: 1) Just from my own thoughts banging around in my head and observations I've made during the pandemic, do you see the pause our society went through and the economic downturn effecting the psychology behind materialism? It seems the American "push for more no matter what" mind state took a eating and I think I'm seeing some consequences of that. 1) It's possible, but my pretty strong prediction is that within 1-2 years of the pandemic ending, we will be back to where we were beforehand in terms of materialism and general behavior. Extreme events like a pandemic seem like they are life changers. For some, that's true (e.g. someone loses a loved one), but for most it's not. We are inherently myopic and think that the thing in front of our noses is the only thing that exists.
2) I'm a current medical student and we get inundated with so many studies that it's overwhelming. Trying to practice evidence based medicine is really hard in an atmosphere that prioritizes publishing with little regard to quality. Do you ha e ways of navigating that I could apply to my day to day? Thanks again. 2) I can't speak to medical research, but that problem exists in all academic fields. The best thing to do is to let science happen. There will always be flashy new findings, but the ones that really matter will get replicated over and over again...and will get built on. The BS ones tend to just die out. That's not a full proof approach to vetting research, but it's better than just assuming everything you see published is true and/or important.
I am a former CMU student. How do you feel about CMU's decision to appoint Richard Grenell as a senior fellow? And how can we do something to fight against it because it seems they are not listening the current student body? Recently, the fence was vandalized against BLM (they wrote "all lives matter" over the previously written "black lives matter"). How are you working to build a more inclusive community at CMU and to fight for those who need it? How can former students help? I signed the petition to revoke his appointment and stand by that completely. I do understand why the university is upholding it, but I am embarrassed to have him associated with CMU.
As for the fence, the CMU Provost sent a really great letter immediately after it all happened condemning the vandalism and supporting BLM. Personally, I try VERY hard to do things like call on students of all races and genders and not let white men (of which I am one, btw) dominate conversations. I try to make sure that examples I use to highlight ideas include more than just typically white and/or male oriented products. I have been trained in Green Dot deescalation for sexual assault and violence. I am on the university academic disciplinary committee and have direct say over infractions like harassment or discrimination. And I sit on my college's Faculty Diversity Equity and Inclusion committee with the hope of including representation and inclusion of URM and female faculty. I care about this topic a LOT and do what I can...still probably not enough.
As for alums, if you see behavior at CMU that you think is antithetical to inclusiveness, let the administration know. Get your fellow alums to weigh in. The university wants your sweet sweet alumni donations. If you are all pissed off, they'll reply.
Hey Professor! I absolutely love to give. But I feel so awkward being thanked. And I dont really like receiving gifts. What would the psychology behind that be? Great question. It's hard to know without more detail, but I'd guess that some of that anxiety is about attention...as in, your lack of desire for it. As for not liking receiving gifts, maybe you have just not received that many good gifts? Again, it's really hard to say without knowing a bit more about you and the gift giving contexts you're involved in. If you want to share more, I can try to answer better, but totally understandable if you don't!
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Well, if I think more deeply....whenever I need something, I feel like it's up to me to make me happy. I usually don't really ask anyone else. Whether I need a massage, have a getaway, or get my dream dog, I just do it myself. As an aside, self-gifts are great! You get what you need, and nothing else. No issues there.
To your question, though, I do wonder if you just haven't receive that many great gifts. Yes, gifts can fall flat and the recipient might not love them, but when they hit, they not only provide the value from the gift itself (e.g. a great bottle of wine) but ALSO the sentimental value from the associations that the gift brings up (e.g. who gave it to you and under what circumstances...like for a birthday or graduation).
Hi Jeff, I have a job application at a place where they do conjoint analysis, something I have never done before. Got any tips? Do you have any thoughts on the technique in general? Personally as someone who takes surveys I find it very abstract (e.g. "Would you rather buy a $5 toaster with two slots vs. a $20 toaster that takes bagels?" I don't know!). First, good luck with the job application! Conjoint is a really useful tool when used correctly (like any tool, I suppose). The short version is that it lets you extract utility weights for different dimensions (e.g. price, product size, product speed, etc...) without directly asking people to answer questions about those dimensions. So instead of saying "how important is price to you?" you would come up with product profiles that have varying price (among other things) and then have people choose between those profiles. You can then extract, using nothing more than regression analysis (though, practically, no one does it that way...they use software like Sawtooth or SPSS Conjoint), how important those dimensions are for any given person.
the technique is tedious in that respondents have to make LOTS of pair-wise comparisons, but the end product can teach you a lot about what people actually value.
One key is to make the task as simple and realistic as possible. So the example you gave is confusing and wouldn't work too well. But I asked you to choose between a $20 toaster with 2 slots vs. a $30 toaster with 3 slots" that would work (in reality it would be more complex than that). You'd be forced to tell me if you prefer a cheaper toaster with fewer slots or a more expensive one with more slots. There's not right answer, but I would learn about those two dimensions for you. I'd need a lot more pair-wise tradeoffs to do this right, but that's the general idea.
Do you find that there are significant differences between particular groups? Does age influence gift giving habits more then sex, or some other factor? Just curious about the general trends of gift giving between groups. Super general question I know, so feel free to just call me out on it Definitely difference across genders as you would expect. More jewelry given by men to women. More gadgets given by women to men. Not so much in terms of age, though I've never really directly looked at that. The reality is that most gifts aren't that exciting. They tend to be things that are popular in a given year or old standbys like gift cards and ties. There certainly are amazing gifts and gift givers out there, but the vast majority of actual gifts given are pretty mundane. But that's not a bad thing if the recipient still likes what they get!
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Yeah, sounds about right. And yeah if everyone is chipper it's all good :) Is there a sort of gift quality vs quantity data? Like is it better to get more frequent smaller gifts or largemore expensive gifts less frequently? Smaller more frequent gifts every time. I have some new work on obligatory vs. non-obligatory gifts. Basically, you can make someone very happy by giving a small gift on a random Tuesday compared to a much nicer gift on their Birthday. More random-tuesday gifts every time!
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Thank you! :) will the results of that be on ur channel? Probably not. The channel isn't about my research, but rather about how to understand data more broadly. But the results will hopefully be published soon!
How extensive are the consumer psychology divisions in companies like apple? Lots of variation. Places like apple, google, amazon will have a lot of depth in terms of psychologist and consumer behavior researchers. But those are the gold standard. Most will rely on consultants to help out
How does education on finance and economics affect consumer behavior? Does knowing the way our brains make consumer decisions or how businesses try to get you to buy change how you shop? If you understand better how firms are trying to entice you to buy their products, you can absolutely counteract that better. For instance, $1.99 is really just $2...we all get that. But it turns out, having a 9-ending price really drives demand. That's nuts, but it does. IF you understand that, you stand a shot and not being duped by something so trivial. So educating yourself can be a big help. On finance and econ eduction, also really helpful, but in other ways. When you go to get a 30-year mortgage for your home, understanding how interest rates work, how inflation might affect home prices, how amortization tables work, etc... will help you make a much more informed decision about what is right for you.
hi! how do you predict consumer happiness/decision making etc during unprecedented times like this, when such a scenario may not have taken place before and you do not have much data to go on? also since the research you do and the data you collect are relevant to sales, do you see advertisements being affected by the pandemic in the long run from any changes in consumer mindset? It's really hard to predict much of anything right now. There are some basic behaviors and experiences that we can expect during a pandemic (e.g. increased anxiety, defaulting to familiar experiences, increased online shopping), but the reality is you're right...we just don't know. There's virtually no data on pandemic psychology/behavior, and all the pop-science stuff you read is just guessing at what will happen.
As for advertising, I think that once the pandemic is over, life will be back to what it was beforehand in almost every respect. People are amazing to adapting to changing circumstances. We are all doing that now with the pandemic and will all do that again when it's over. I don't think that advertising will be any different. Give it a year after we're all vaccinated (or whatever winds up being the solution) and most people will largely forget that we even had a pandemic. Yes, some will have big changes like lost loved ones or lost jobs, but for most people, life will return to what it was before Covid hit.
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thank you for answering, that is very interesting! the data you collect seems to be applicable to so many different fields. i asked about advertising as a student interested in media, but i can see it being useful in various types of companies be it internet security, food, travel etc. your job sounds really cool and i will definitely check out your YouTube channel :) Thanks!
Did you ever get to meet Herbert Simon? Wasn't he interested in similar things? I wish! I've been at CMU for 11 years. Simon passed away in 2001, so I missed him by a few years.
And yes, Simon was one of the original researchers into what's known as Bounded Rationality, it's the idea that humans don't act like computers and process all information simultaneously, but rather use heuristics and shortcuts to accomplish most tasks.
How influential was the work of Daniel Kahnemann to your current teaching? VERY! I don't know Danny personally, but my advisor got his PhD at Princeton when Danny was there, so lots of indirect influence that way. More generally, the field of decision making was build on his (and others) work, so hard not to be influenced.
Do you have any opinions on investors behavior during covid 19? More specifically how certain financial firms may have targeted people who have or would dabble in market that have recently lost work due to the pandemic? Caveat: I am not a finance professor. That said, my read is that fear of missing out (FOMO) is driving a lot of unexpected behaviors. The market has rallied like crazy since the March low and everyone wants in on that. It's hard to sit by and watch others make a killing while you don't.
As for practices like getting people who don't typically to invest to do so, there's two sides to this. On the one hand, getting more people involved with investing is a great thing. It used to be only that the very wealthy could invest and reap the benefits of the market, but now with places like Robinhood and fee-free trading on Schwab and the like, everyone can participate. On the other hand, MANY people don't understand risk well at all. They just see the possible upside and ignore the possibility of losing a lot (see that guy that committed suicide b/c of a terrible options trade...that's horrible). So firms and gov't have a responsibility to both educate investors and provide safeguards against uninformed behaviors.
the below is a reply to the above
Hello, I just want to specify something in your comment! The young college student who committed suicide did so because a misprogrammed number on the trading site, Robinhood. Of course at the time he did not know it, but the value loss that was near $800,000, was showing the loss of the entire option, not his equity in the option, which was -$1,000 - -$2,000 if I remember right. It was Robinhood's terrible interface, not his misunderstanding of risk, which is horrible. If you would like a misunderstanding of risk on trading platforms, look no further than wallstreetbets, of course as you said FOMO is a huge factor, or if you're interested, some trading platforms intentionally advertise to consumers without properly representing risk. Thank you very much for this AMA, it has been quite insightful! Thanks so much for that clarification!
I have a question re: dating sites / apps. Is there a way to structure incentives so that the company is motivated to find good pairings between users? It feels like Tinder, Bumble, Hinge, etc. don't have such an incentive currently I think they do have an incentive to make good pairings. Word of mouth is their strongest asset so having good matches is key. The challenge is that good matches are hard to come by and not everyone agrees on what good is. Is good marriage? Is it a fun night? Not clear.
Hello Professor and thank you for taking this time. As a professional that works in marketing and a person who suffers from mental illnesses, it is often disheartening for me to see so much valuable research and findings be easily made available for use by companies for marketing and consumer exploitation while it is so difficult for those who are struggling to find information that could be beneficial to living their lives more freely. What are your thoughts on this, and do you think there are ways we could change the system to better benefit individuals needs directly? The connection between marketing academia, marketing industry, and consumers just sucks. No one outside of academia reads marketing academic journals. Few in academia care if their work has applications (even in an applied field like marketing). And consumers can't be bothered (rightfully) to read through academic work to learn.
Some solutions that I've seen that work: - Marketing Science Institute: this is an organization whose entire goal is link academia and practice. They have conferences where they invite folks from both sides to collaborate. More of this please! - Pop-science social science books like Freakonomics, Blink, Predictably Irrational, etc...: They all have plenty of shortcomings, but the authors all do an amazing job of conveying the ideas of academia to the public. I think that's fantastic. More of this too please! - Consulting for non-profits. I do this and many others do as well. We use our knowledge to help non-profits do their amazing work. This is a way to avoid that "exploitation" you mentioned and instead use what we know to help others. There's not much money in this kind of consulting, which is why few do it, but it's really important. Maybe some kind of granting agency could earmark money for non-profits to hire academic consultants to help them use what we know to help the world. That would be awesome
hey, I'm a recent advertisement graduate, it's good to see someone from such a familiar field here anyways, when I do groceries, I always follow the list to a T, and I take no time at all getting the items, basically, I go against every little trick supermarkets have to "seduce" the customer, so my question is: what makes someone a "good customer"? is it someone highly susceptible to the marketing tricks at the market or someone who spends both their money and time more efficiently? Good can mean different things here. You sound like you're probably super loyal to products. That's pretty great for most companies. The fact that you don't succumb to unintended purchases definitely makes you less attractive in one capacity, but your predictability makes you very attractive in other ways. If I could run a company where every customer always bought the same thing every week, I would LOVE that. I would know how to schedule raw material purchases, delivery schedules, etc... I would have a steady and dependable income. If, however, I relied just on getting lucky and catching the eye of customers as they passed my products on store shelves, that would be a whole lot more difficult a business plan to execute.
Hi Jeff, I have always geared my life towards maxing out the benefits and deducting the losses for example leaving my family in order to search for better life oportunities, ditching jobs where I felt safe in favor of new and more promising ones. And by this logic I have reached quIte far in my life. But at the end achieving all this goals don't yields the expected satisfaction. However I'm pretty sure that don't doing this would be even worse. Why does it seems that no matter if the desitions taken are the best at my point of view it still seems like I need more than the goals I have achieved. Why is disatisfaction the expected result? Wow, that's a lot to give up for goals! People are inherently likely to make what are known as upward comparisons. We don't look at the people who we have done better than, but instead focus on the few who done better than us. The classic example is Silver Olympic medalists. They should be elated, but instead they just covet the Gold medalist.
Beyond that, in your specific case, it's hard to say for sure, but we know that close relationships are the number one driver of life satisfaction. If you've given those all up in pursuit of some other goal, that might explain things a bit. Take that with a grain of salt as all I know about you is summed up in 100 words or so!
Hello Jeff, glad to see this AMA here! I'm a statistics student in Brazil (one of my professors got his doctorate degree at Carnegie Mellon University, in fact!). Much of what we learn nowadays is related to careers pertaining the finance fields. Other stuff includes academic research mixed with other fields. I see myself as a data analyst for a big bank someday, but I always think: is there any career for a data scientist thats underrated by modern standards but still awesome and rewarding, in your opinion? Go work for a non-profit! It's now where the money is, but many need help from data scientists. You can actually change the world that way!
Which US dollar bill is your favorite? Cash? You still use cash?
the below is a reply to the above
For coke yeah Oh, in that case.... Nope, not replying and losing my tenure :)
the below is a reply to the above
Prof, you have a bias. OP mean Coca Cola. I don't drink soda either :)
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Lupine Publishers | Oral Hygiene Habits and Dental Treatment Needs of Children with Dental Fluorosis and Those Without Dental Fluorosis Aged 12-15 Years In in a High Fluoride Area in North Kajiado Kenya

Lupine Publishers | Oral Hygiene Habits and Dental Treatment Needs of Children with Dental Fluorosis and Those Without Dental Fluorosis Aged 12-15 Years In in a High Fluoride Area in North Kajiado Kenya

Lupine Publishers | Journal of Oral Healthcare


Background: The dental disease identified as dental caries, periodontal, gingival lesions and dental fluorosis when diagnosed early and the treatment needs assessment with patients’ perception ensures the proper use of the physical facilitates, It also enhances planning for rational health resource allocation, utilization and personnel distribution so as to tackle the health problems in a holistic way.
Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the dental treatment needs among children aged 13-17 years affected by dental fluorosis and those not affected by dental fluorosis in Kajiado North District of Kenya
Materials and Methods: Study design this was a cross sectional comparative study of the dental treatment needs among two age matched population groups in primary school children. Sampling and Sample size. Stratified random sampling was used to select four primary schools out of the primary schools in North Kajiado. All children in the school with a full permanent dentin and whose parents had signed the consent form were recruited into the study. The study involved 248 children, 98(40%) males and 150(60%) females aged between 13 -17 years (mean age = 14.75±1.45) selected by simple random sampling from 9 schools in Kajiado North District which was purposively selected. They were all clinically examined under natural light for plaque and gingival scores using the Silness and Loe 1, Loe and Silness, dental caries was recrded using the decayed Missing Filedl teeth (DMFT), while gingivitis, periodontal disease and fluorosis using indices:- Silness and Loe 1, Loe and Silness, DMFT,CPITN and TFI.
Results: The treatment needs for gingivitis were similar, majority 218 (88%) children with fluorosis and 213 (86%) without required oral hygiene instructions and prophylaxis. There were 3(1.2%) children who had periodontitis in the group with dental fluorosis and required scaling and root planning. There were 50% children with caries in the fluorosis group who required one surface and 24.2% for two surface amalgam/composite restorations and for those without fluorosis, 76% required one surface and 15.2% two surface amalgam/composite restorations. There were 321(60.8%) teeth surfaces which required bleaching and microabrasion or composite masking and another 207(39.2%) for direct composite / porcelain veneers or crowns.
Conclusion: Children with dental fluorosis were burdened more by dental disease and had more treatment needs (dental caries, fluorosis, periodontal disease and gingivitis) when compared to those without dental fluorosis.


Dental conditions like fluorosis, caries, gingival and periodontal diseases require varied treatment approaches to manage them depending on the severity hence the need to establish the levels of disease burden and treatment needs for proper planning of dental services. Well assessed dental treatment needs go a long way in the estimation of resources, rational fund allocation and efficient utilization of dental materials. Dental treatment needs should be assessed objectively and subjectively based not only on normative assessment but also on perceived needs and impact so as to obtain the best outcomes. The incorporation of both the clinician’s objective assessment and the client’s felt needs is essential in ensuring that they participate in the general management of their condition. In common practice today Bradshaw (1978) in a study on the problems and progress in medical care said that the treatment needs of most dental conditions are based on the clinician’s judgement using the recommended dental indices1. The age between 13-17 years forms the transition period between childhood and adulthood. The growth changes seen during this stage of life warrants a clear understanding of the health needs in general and support for optimal psychosocial and emotional development. Welbury pointed out that children affected by fluorosis suffer from low self - esteem, social stigma and poor performance in school.
Facial image is an important aspect with regard to an individual’s presentation and self-esteem in communication. This is greatly affected by the presence of dental fluorosis among other things like mal-aligned teeth, missing anterior teeth or even congenital malformations of the oral cavity. Globally there is often a permanent stigma associated with dental fluorosis among children or adults. A study conducted in Brazil by Rodriques showed esthetic changes in the permanent dentition are the greatest concern in dental fluorosis. Studies by Welbury and Glasser have observed that if left untreated, dental fluorosis causes embarrassment, psychosocial distress, difficulties in societal adjustment, damage to self-esteem and poor performance for the school-going children. Another study in Kenya by Mwaniki showed that between 60.4% and 84.3% of the respondents viewed dental fluorosis as a problem because of its unfavourable effects on an individual’s personality. It is important to note that dental fluorosis leads to shyness in expression thereby masking the true personality of an individual. It is further evidenced by a South African study by Mothusi that showed the trauma suffered by young people with dental fluorosis to be depressing such that they requested to have the teeth extracted and replaced with dentures.
Generally, the quality of life is greatly affected by oral diseases, dental fluorosis not being an exception, with a significant impact on the 13-17- year- olds due to their delicate stage of growth and development. Children experience appreciable impacts on oral health related quality of life with the greatest burden being associated with dental caries and to a lesser extent, fluorosis according to a study in Uganda by Robinson. The aspects considered when determining the quality of life with regard to oral diseases using the oral impact of daily performance (OIDP index) include eating, speaking and pronouncing clearly, cleaning teeth, sleeping and relaxing, smiling without embarrassment, maintaining emotional state and enjoying contact with others. A study in Tanzania by Roman on the impact and treatment needs of dental fluorosis where a total of 269 students with dental fluorosis aged 15-18 years (mean age 17.3) were involved, showed that a majority (65.4)% had severe dental fluorosis (TFI 6-9) while 29.4% had TFI 4-5 and 5.2% had TFI 1-3. Most of the students in this study (92.6%) perceived at least one (OIDP) with the most affected being smiling at 88.1%, emotional stability 81.4%, and having contact with others 75.5%. Studies by Locker and Leake indicated that the oral health status of at risk children and adolescents appeared to have been poor resulting in the need for several treatments including urgent, restorative, periodontal and preventive care Table 1.
Table 1: Distribution of study participants according to age and gender.
Materials and Methods

Study Population

The study population comprised of 13 -17- years who were born and brought up in Kajiado North District in the first 7 years of life. The target population involved 34,122 children aged 13- 17 years according to the Kenyan population and housing census 2009 for Kajiado North District. The public primary and secondary school enrolment was approximately 19,065 for the ages 13-17 years in the year 2011 in the study involved 248 children, 98(40%) males and 150(60%) females aged between 13 -17 years (mean age = 14.75 ±1.45) selected by simple random sampling from 9 schools in Kajiado North District which was purposively selected. They were all clinically examined under natural light for plaque and gingival scores, dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal disease and fluorosis using indices:- Silness and Loe 1963, Loe and Silness 1964, DMFT,CPITN and TFI. Information on biodata, consumption of sugary snacks, brushing was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Water samples were collected for testing for fluoride levels at the government chemist laboratories.

Data analysis

The clinical examination forms were pre-coded. The quality of data was ensured during the entire study process especially at the data collection point to include completeness of questionnaires, and validity of responses. Data was de - indentified and stored in a password protected data base with access being granted to the statistician. Quality control through data cleaning and validation was censured by counter checking frequencies in the computer and any missing data was re - entered. The findings from the study were organized in the form of frequency tables and figures. Computations to calculate disease burden (caries experience, prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis, treatment needs and the cost of treatment) were done. The independent variable for this analysis was presence/absence of fluorosis while the dependent variables were age, gender, gingivitis, periodontitis, caries experience and cost of treatment. The confounding factors were snacking and oral hygiene practices. For categorical variables association between dependent variables and fluorosis was tested using a Pearson Chi-square test while a student t-test was used for continuous variables and the conventional P value of cut-off of < 0.05 was used to establish a significant association. To calculate the total DMFT, the total number of teeth per child with caries, filled due to caries, missing due to caries was summed up. For the mean gingival and plaque scores, the total score per child was calculated by summing the individual tooth scores, divided by 6 and the total for the index teeth added and divided by 6. To determine the agreement rates between assessors, a Cohen kappa score (agreement rate) was calculated for each assessment (tooth and surface) for all children assessed. A median agreement rate was then computed from all individual scores calculated. Data collected was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 17.0) Table 2.
Table 2: Sources of drinking water.


Socio demographic characteristics

This study involved 248 children aged between 13-17 years with a mean age of 14.75 years (±1.45 SD) who were all matched for age and gender. The ratio of children with dental fluorosis and those without was 1:1 and the male to female ratio was 2:3 and was not statistically significant [p= 0.104 (p ≤0.05)] as shown in Table 1. There were 241 (97%) participants born and raised in Kajiado North while 7(3%) moved to the district before 7 years of age.

Source of water and analysis

There was a similar pattern on the water sources which was not statistically significant [p=0.239 (p≤0.05)] for children with fluorosis and those without fluorosis. Most of the study participants consumed borehole water and most of tap water was also from boreholes. Dams and river sources were for a minority group as shown in Table 3.
Table 3:

Gishagi borehole which is in a raised ground recorded low fluoride levels of 0.1 ppm as well as Kerarapon springs 0.44 and Lemelepo borehole 0.5, Ngong main borehole had the recommended levels by WHO of 1ppm. Embulbul roadside and Embulbul community water supplies had very high levels of fluoride at 8.3 and 15ppm (Table 4).
Table 4:

Tooth brushing habits

Majority of the children 122(98%) from each group brushed their teeth, the frequency of brushing was similar where by 113(93%) with fluorosis and 105(88%) without used a toothbrush while a chewing stick was used by a few (Table 5). The type of tooth brushing aid used was not statistically significant p=0.120(p≤ 0.05). Majority brushed once a day either in the morning after breakfast 61(50%) and 59(48%) or in the evening after meals 49(40%) and 51(42% for the children with fluorosis and those without fluorosis respectively. Only a small percentage brushed their teeth twice a day. There was no statistical significant difference on the timing of brushing between the groups [p=0.180(p≤ 0.05].
Table 5:

Relationship between brushing habits and plaque scores

Generally, children who brushed once after breakfast in both groups had PSs which were statistically significant p=0.003(p≤0.05) and the children with fluorosis had the lowest PSs of 0.85(0.5). The other brushing timings were not statistically significant p=1.02(p≤0.05) for at night and p= 0.664(p≤0.05) for twice a day as depicted in.


Both groups had a similar pattern of treatment needs. There were 109(88%) for OHI, 12(10%) OHI and oral prophylaxis, 3(2%) OHI and scaling for children with fluorosis. Those without fluorosis, 107(86%) OHI, 15(12%) OHI and oral prophylaxis, 2(2%) OHI and scaling.


Of the 3(2.4%) children with fluorosis who had periodontitis they all required scaling and root planing.

Dental caries

In both groups, dental restorations in form of one surface fillings were mostly indicated as 35(50%)/ 35(76%) for the children with fluorosis/those without. Two surface restorations 5(7.1%) for fluorosis and 7(15%) those without fluorosis. Extraction and partial dentures 9(12%) for fluorosis and 2(4.3%) those without fluorosis. Three surface composite restorations among children with fluorosis were 4(5.7%).

Caries experience in relation to consumption of sugary snacks

In the group with fluorosis the children who consumed sugary snacks twice had a higher DMFT of 0.71(1.4) while children without dental fluorosis and consumed four times scored highest DMFT of 0.83(0.9). On the weekly snack consumption, those who sacked once had no caries in both groups p=0;000(p≤0.05) which was statistically significant while the highest DMFT was recorded in those who snacked twice/four times for the fluorosis group at 0.64/0.6 while in the group without fluorosis the scores ranged between 0.17-0.25 despite different weekly snacking times.
None of the children who brushed twice had dental caries experience in the fluorosis group for once a day (after breakfast or at night) had a DMFT of 0.5(1)/ 0.73(1.6). For the group without fluorosis, there was some caries experience despite the timings for brushing. Generally there was no statistical significant difference on the brushing timing for both groups. The children who brushed after breakfast had a p=0.850(p≤0.05), at night only p=0.073(p≤0.05) and twice a day p=0.217(p≤0.05) therefore, brushing did not have any influence on the caries experience.

Cumulative TFI frequencies

In both jaws TFI 4-5 was the most frequent at 2301(52.3%) on the labial and lingual surfaces of the anterior teeth in both the maxilla and of the mandibular anterior teeth 2240(51.8%). There were 321(60.8%) surfaces which required bleaching and/or micro abrasion or composite masking while 207(39.2%) surfaces required porcelain veneers or crowns Table 6.
Table 6:


The current study did not find much difference in the treatment needs for gingivitis between the two groups as majority 88% with fluorosis and 86% without fluorosis required oral hygiene instructions and oral prophylaxis and in periodontitis the 1.2% affected required scaling and root planing. Most of the subjects with dental caries required some form of restorations either one, two or three surface amalgam/ composite restorations. A smaller number required extractions and partial dentures. Since radiographs were not taken for this study, it was difficult to ascertain the teeth which were indicated for pulp therapy. Studies done in Trinidad and Tobago by Naidu and Uganda by Nalweyiso clearly indicated that the treatment burden of dental caries is mainly centered on fillings, fissure sealants, pulp therapy and extractions. This study considered treatment needs for dental fluorosis in terms of labial surfaces from canine to canine in the maxillary teeth only. It was established that 48% of the teeth surfaces required bleaching / micro abrasion, composite masking and 52% for direct/indirect composite veneers/crowns. In Kenya Mwaniki found that 60.4 - 84.3% of the respondents viewed dental fluorosis as a problem although the study design was different from the current study.


Children with dental fluorosis were burdened more by dental disease and had more treatment needs (dental caries, fluorosis, periodontal disease and gingivitis) when compared to those without dental fluorosis.
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